The article examines the phenomenon of homeless people in the world, and describes the gradual development of the phenomenon, with reference to economic, social and personal factors, such as immigration crisis, addiction to psychoactive substances, mental pathologies,
The article focuses on the reasons why these people became street dwellers, while presenting the ways in which they are dealt with and the problems that arise, both professional and moral, that accompany the professionals who deal with them.
The article also deals with the determination of criteria for therapeutic success, as well as on principle-judicial aspects, such as the extent to which society may impose changes in the way a person lives, and whether the government can be required, morally and legally, to adopt a policy of controlled migration in order to reduce the number of immigrants whose chances of absorption They are weak.
The phenomenon of street dwellers, as an urban social concept, is not new. It is recognized in most countries of the world, although it goes through periods of ups and downs in accordance with the socio-economic situation. For example, the economic depression of the 1930s, both in Europe and the United States, caused waves of mass unemployment affecting all segments of the population, the disintegration of family and social frameworks, and as a result turned many people into street dwellers.
Some of the victims of the economic crisis escaped their distress in the years preceding World War II and in the years of economic prosperity after the end of the war. Others, suffering from a host of problems and difficulties, gradually became chronic street dwellers, unable to escape their situation. The phenomenon worsened in the 1960s in the United States, when thousands of patients were released from mental hospitals without being absorbed into a supportive therapeutic framework outside the institution, thus turning the homeless phenomenon into a social and political problem and a human tragedy.
Researchers believe that the increase in the dimensions of the phenomenon has led to an increase in professional interest in the subject, stemming both from concern for the personal plight of the residents of the street and due to the nuisance that they constituted for the general public. It should be noted that the term "street dwellers", in its broad sociological sense, differs from society to society and from state to state. What appears to be normative housing in one country will be perceived in another country as a form of housing unsuitable for human habitation. Therefore, it is difficult to find a universally accepted definition of the concept of "street dwellers"
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of "social Darwinism" developed in the United States, and was supported by those who believed that human weaknesses, such as alcohol addiction or lack of employment, were unjustified and unforgivable reasons, among them homelessness. Therefore, these people should be avoided and should be treated as "losers" - losers - who are to blame for their situation. Many people, including policymakers, have branded the street dwellers and labeled them lazy, consciously choosing a parasitic way of life instead of working for a living. The truth is that this is far from reality and this is ignorance and ignorance.
Sometimes some of the staff members employed in shelters also share the theory that those staying there are to blame for their condition and the culture of poverty in which they are located, and therefore some of the "shelters" - the shelters used by street residents - are essentially similar to enforcement facilities, Compromising. This negative labeling is sometimes shared by the media. There are journalists who relate to the residents of the street on a judicial-moral level, and define them as a "sub-class" characterized by rationalism, lack of belonging, and sociopathism. This expression - "sub-status" - was coined by researchers and adopted by the media, and naturally, makes it difficult for the street dweller to be re-absorbed into society, and sometimes creates prejudice among the professionals themselves.
Einstein noted, "It is much easier to dismantle an atom than to decompose prejudice."
In recent years there has been a certain shift in public opinion, and the general public and professionals are beginning to treat street dwellers as the victims of a human tragedy whose main source is external factors. According to this view, the residents of the street should not be accused of being blamed for their situation, but rather should try to reduce the factors contributing to the phenomenon, including through the provision of reduced housing and assistance in placing them in suitable places of work. In the opinion of those who support this approach, these people should not be treated as "poor people" in the simplistic economic sense of the term, but as people whose lives have run aground for external reasons, and society must help them emerge from their predicament. In 1981, a group of activists was founded in the United States, which championed the need to deal with what they called "social refugees." These conditions, the activists claimed, are not necessarily related to the economic situation in the country, as the level of living in the United States has increased steadily. Wright (1989, Wright) coined the concepts "homeless" versus "chronically" homeless. Regarding the "poor" homeless person, street patrols are a transitory phenomenon in which he is able to extricate himself from him if he is given appropriate assistance. On the other hand, the "chronic" homeless person is a person who persists in his refusal to receive assistance from the welfare authorities (or fails in his attempts to extricate himself from his condition despite the assistance provided to him) and has become a chronic street dweller. The reasons for street urination and description of the phenomenon Toleci and Slancy (1996) distinguish between two approaches that help to understand the phenomenon: The first is a socio-economic approach that places emphasis on the environment and sees it as the main influence, and the second approach focuses on the personal aspect as a central factor contributing to the emergence of the street phenomenon Milbaum as cited in Trancy & Sloecker (1996), believes that street dwellers are the result of a socio-economic situation that attests to the individual's inability to provide for his needs, and emphasizes the failure of society to provide appropriate mechanisms to enable each person to provide for his or her existential needs. The current is no longer suitable for a person and therefore needs to be changed. Social and economic factors Morse (1992) believes that economic factors are the main reason why a person becomes a street owner, because in the absence of income - as a result of losing a job, for example - people can't afford rent or mortgage and are forced to leave their homes. In the eighties of the twentieth century were removed
In the 1980s, 2.5 million people were expelled from their homes in the United States due to their inability to meet the necessary payments (Hagen, 1994; Hill, 1994). Bulman (1993) believes that street dwellers are the direct and exclusive result of economic deprivation. In his opinion, had it not been for the massive cuts in welfare budgets and housing assistance programs, the phenomenon of street dwellers would not have reached as large a scale as it had in the United States. In his estimation, the poor gradually lost their support networks and deteriorated into difficult situations, up to the condition of street dwellers.
Ethnic and religious discrimination is one of the reasons why minorities are forced to make do with poor housing and poor education and the lack of progress (Hopper, Baxter & Cox, 1982). Prejudices toward minority groups impair their ability to fit into a suitable workplace and increase the risk of becoming homeless (Wong, 2002).
Most of the residents of the street are characterized by a lack of family ties and social support networks. Many of them suffered from the absence of a stable and supportive family, some of whom grew up in institutions and foster families, and many of them migrated between their families and alternative frameworks (Robert, Fuornier & Pauze, 2003; Snow & Anderson, 1993).
Another prominent factor contributing to the deterioration into the street relates to people with disabilities. People with physical or mental disabilities have fewer skills to find their place in the job market and find adequate housing, and they find it more difficult to use friends, family members, or the welfare system. The combination of these factors may turn a person into a street dweller and establish his status as a dysfunctional street worker (Babidge, Buhrich & Bulter, 2001; Rossi, 1989).
The literature on the causes of "descent into the street" focuses, among other things, on the biographies of street dwellers, in order to determine whether it is possible to identify prominent personal factors that create a tendency in the first place to descend into the street or are victims of social forces beyond their control (Anderson, Snow &). In general, risk factors inherent in a person's personality increase the likelihood of a particular problem, but of course, not all cases where a risk factor is identified will necessarily create a problem. Poverty, defined by Bulman (Bulman, 1993) as a major risk factor for street housing, does not make all poor people homeless. Problems arise when faced with many demands placed by internal and external systems, the individual finds it difficult to mobilize the necessary adaptive mechanisms and resources (Miley, O'Melia & DuBois, 1995). Street dwellers are people who find it difficult to adapt to the demands of normative society and who suffer to some degree or other from mental disorders. Basic life requirements - such as finding work, finding and holding an apartment or maintaining basic hygiene - are requirements that the street can't cope with (Shapiro and Frumer, 1996).
In a study conducted in Jerusalem in 2001, street residents were asked about the reasons that led them to live on the street. The findings of the study indicated several risk factors, such as the breakdown of marital systems, addiction damages (drugs, alcohol, gambling, etc.), lack of available housing solutions, lack of resources and childhood traumas. The study also examined factors that protected street dwellers on the street, such as the ability and skills of survival, a professional intervention of social workers, rehabilitation processes, personality variables, family ties and the ability to integrate into rehabilitation frameworks.
Liing (1979) emphasized the importance of basic - basic security - of man. As far as he is concerned, this security is a necessary condition for dealing wi th a person and contributes to his ability to cope. It helps a person to face difficult personal changes and changes, and overcome conflicts and crises. For example, an immigration crisis may exacerbate existing mental problems, increase the tendency to become addicted, intensify family crises and increase the risk of deterioration into the street. Exceptional patterns of behavior can be identified, indicating the existence of anxiety, leading to isolation and inward convergence. A person who isolates himself radically from society perceives his surroundings in a distorted manner. For him, being understood by another person means being swallowed up, choking. A person who uses this defense mechanism is willing to tolerate the pain and loneliness of being misunderstood and unusual because it has a degree of security and protection against a threatening environment. The subjective feeling of the street dweller draws him into a state of stagnation, paralyzed and fossilized. He is powerless and unable to escape from the pumping of the street, which has become a magnet for him that can not be released from his grasp, and which puts him into a state of nothingness, a vacuum of vacuum and emptiness. As a result, he regroups within himself, develops an anxiety that does not allow him to feel a sense of reciprocity with his environment, and feels that he is in a position of dependence on the other. Detachment and blurring of identity are seen by him as the only way to protect himself. This man's dilemma is between convergence and total blurring of identity (Leing, 1979). For People suffering from extreme solitude have a very isolated inner self, and they are forced to build an inner wall to maintain and maintain the vitality of their inner world. This invisible wall is built in various forms; Inward withdrawal is one of the most serious.
The gloomy situation is getting worse in all the streets of the world.
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